Upscaling is a projector's process to convert a lower-resolution image or video to a higher-resolution image or video. Typically, a software or hardware algorithm built into the projector upscales the picture, taking the original image and increasing the number of pixels in the image.
Upscaling can improve the quality of lower-resolution content and make it look more visually appealing on a high-resolution projector. The upscaling algorithm can use various techniques, such as interpolation, which adds new pixels to the image based on the color and brightness of the surrounding pixels. It can also use other methods, such as edge enhancement, which can help to sharpen edges and improve the overall detail of the image. Typically the more resolution in the original content, the easier it is for the upscaling algorithm to create a satisfactory result. Upscaling a high-definition image to 4K is much easier than upscaling a standard-definition image to Full HD
Upscaling is not the same as true high-resolution, and the quality of the upscaled image will depend on the quality of the upscaling algorithm and the original image. Also, some projectors have better upscaling capabilities than others.